Anon Photo

Umut Gurkan

Wilbert J. Austin Professor of Engineering
Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Improves human health via research in cell mechanics to develop biosensors and point-of-care systems
Office: 616B Glennan
Phone Number: (216) 368-6447
Fax Number: (216) 368-3007
Email: umut@case.edu

Education

Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 2010
B.S., Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 2005
B.S., Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 2004

Research Interests

Umut A. Gurkan is leading the CASE Biomanufacturing and Microfabrication Laboratory (CASE-BML). Inspired by modern advanced manufacturing methods, the primary focus of CASE-BML is to develop micro/nano-scale technologies and biomanufacturing complex multiscale biological systems for blood disease research, cardiovascular medicine, orthopaedics, and musculoskeletal health.

Teaching Interests

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems in Biology and Medicine (BioMEMS)<br>Mechanics of Biological Fluids<br>Design of Mechanical Elements

Other Affiliations

2016 - PRESENT, Chief Scientist, Hemex Health

Patents Pending

2013, "Portal and method for management of dialysis therapy," 2013/3/24, Umut Gurkan, Utkan Demirci, Derya Yellin.
2015, "Microfluidic Biochip Electrophoresis To Monitor and Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease," PCT/US2015/042907, Umut Gurkan, Yunus Alapan, Jane Little, Connie Piccone.
2015, "Sensor apparatus, systems and methods of making same," 14/728,642, Umut Gurkan, Pedram Mohseni, Michael Suster, M Bakshiani.

Publications

Freeman, B., Maji, D., Nrasimhan, S., Ahuja, S., Little, J., Suster, M., ... Gurkan, U. (2021). Microfluidic electrical impedance assessment of red blood cell-mediated microvascular occlusion.. Lab on a chip, ().
Gurkan, U. (2021). Biophysical and rheological biomarkers of red blood cell physiology and pathophysiology.. Current opinion in hematology, ().
Freeman, B., Kucukal, E., Nrasimhan, S., Bode, A., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2021). Standardized microfluidic assessment of red blood cell-mediated microcapillary occlusion: Association with clinical phenotype and hydroxyurea responsiveness in sickle cell disease.. Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994), 28 (2), e12662.
ElKabbash, M., Sreekanth, K., Fraiwan, A., Cole, J., Alapan, Y., Letsou, T., ... Strangi, G. (2020). Ultrathin-film optical coating for angle-independent remote hydrogen sensing. Measurement Science and Technology, 31 (11).
ElKabbash, M., Sreekanth, K., Fraiwan, A., Cole, J., Alapan, Y., Letsou, T., ... Strangi, G. (2020). Ultrathin-film optical coating for angle-independent remote hydrogen sensing. Measurement Science and Technology, 31 (11).
Kucukal, E., Man, Y., Hill, A., Liu, S., Bode, A., Bakhshiani, M., ... Gurkan, U. (2020). Whole blood viscosity and red blood cell adhesion: Potential biomarkers for targeted and curative therapies in sickle cell disease. American Journal of Hematology, 95 (11), 1246-1256.
Man, Y., Kucukal, E., Bakhshiani, M., Bode, A., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2020). Standardized microfluidic assessment of red blood cell mediated microcapillary occlusion: association with clinical phenotype and hydroxyurea responsiveness in sickle cell disease. Microcirculation, ().
Kucukal, E., Man, Y., Quinn, E., Tewari, N., Bakhshiani, M., Ilich, A., ... Gurkan, U. (2020). Red blood cell adhesion to ICAM-1 is mediated by fibrinogen and is associated with right-to-left shunts in sickle cell disease. Blood Advances, 4 (15), 3688-3698.
Noomuna, P., Risinger, M., Zhou, S., Seu, K., Man, Y., Bakhshiani, M., ... Low, P. (2020). Inhibition of Band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation: a new mechanism for treatment of sickle cell disease. British Journal of Haematology, 190 (4), 599-609.
Man, Y., Goreke, U., Kucukal, E., Hill, A., Bakhshiani, M., Liu, S., ... Gurkan, U. (2020). Leukocyte adhesion to P-selectin and the inhibitory role of Crizanlizumab in sickle cell disease: A standardized microfluidic assessment. Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, 83 ().
Hasan, M., Fraiwan, A., Nrasimhan, S., Alapan, Y., Adelung, R., Akkus, A., ... Gurkan, U. (2020). Paper-based microchip electrophoresis for point-of-care hemoglobin testing.. The Analyst, 145 (7), 2525-2542.
Chatterjee, S., Shkondin, E., Takayama, O., Fisher, A., Fraiwan, A., Gurkan, U., ... Strangi, G. (2020). Hydrogen gas sensing using aluminum doped ZnO metasurfaces. Nanoscale Advances, 2 (8), 3452-3459.
Man, Y., Kucukal, E., Bakhshiani, M., Watson, Q., Bosch, J., Zimmerman, P., ... Gurkan, U. (2020). Microfluidic assessment of red blood cell mediated microvascular occlusion. Lab on a Chip, 20 (12), 2086-2099.
Hasan, M., Fraiwan, A., Bakhshiani, M., Alapan, Y., Ung, R., Akkus, A., ... Gurkan, U. (2020). Paper-based microchip electrophoresis for point-of-care hemoglobin testing. The Analyst, 145 (7), 2525-2542.
Yuan, C., Quinn, E., Kucukal, E., Kapoor, S., Gurkan, U., & Little, J. (2019). Priapism, hemoglobin desaturation, and red blood cell adhesion in men with sickle cell anemia. Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, 79 ().
ElKabbash, M., Sreekanth, K., Alapan, Y., Kim, M., Cole, J., Fraiwan, A., ... Strangi, G. (2019). Hydrogen Sensing Using Thin-Film Perfect Light Absorber. ACS Photonics, 6 (8), 1889-1894.
ElKabbash, M., Sreekanth, K., Alapan, Y., Kim, M., Cole, J., Fraiwan, A., ... Strangi, G. (2019). Hydrogen Sensing Using Thin-Film Perfect Light Absorber. ACS Photonics, 6 (8), 1889-1894.
Akkaya, B., Kucukal, E., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2019). Mercury leads to abnormal red blood cell adhesion to laminin mediated by membrane sulfatides. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, 1861 (6), 1162-1171.
Hasan, M., Radwan, A., Kim, M., Kucukal, E., Maji, D., Pashaei, V., ... Gurkan, U. (2019). Emerging micro and nanotechnologies in neuroscience: Devices, fabrication methods, and implementation in monitoring of neural activity and drug delivery. TECHNOLOGY, 07 (03n04), 57-83.
Benson, B., Li, L., Myers, J., Dorand, R., Gurkan, U., Huang, A., ... Ransohoff, R. (2018). Biomimetic post-capillary venule expansions for leukocyte adhesion studies. Scientific Reports, 8 (1).
Maji, D., De La Fuente, M., Kucukal, E., Sekhon, U., Schmaier, A., Sen Gupta, A., ... Suster, M. (2018). Assessment of Whole Blood Coagulation with a Microfluidic Dielectric Sensor. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 16 (10), 2050-2056.
Kucukal, E., Ilich, A., Key, N., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2018). Red Blood Cell Adhesion to Heme-Activated Endothelial Cells Reflects Clinical Phenotype in Sickle Cell Disease. American Journal of Hematology, 93 (8), 1050-1060.
Stavrou, E., Fang, C., Bane, K., Long, A., Naudin, C., Kucukal, E., ... Schmaier, A. (2018). Factor XII and uPAR upregulate neutrophil functions to influence wound healing. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 128 (3), 944-959.
Kucukal, E., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2018). Shear dependent red blood cell adhesion in microscale flow. Integrative Biology, 10 (4), 194-206.
Fan, J., Liao, H., Ke, R., Kucukal, E., Gurkan, U., Shen, X., ... Li, B. (2018). A monolithic Lagrangian meshfree scheme for Fluid-Structure Interaction problems within the OTM framework. COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, 337 (), 198-219.
Webster-Wood, V., Akkus, O., Gurkan, U., Chiel, H., & Quinn, R. D. (2017). Organismal engineering: Toward a robotic taxonomic key for devices using organic materials . Science Robotics, 2 (12).
Kim, M., Alapan, Y., Adhikari, A., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2017). Hypoxia enhanced adhesion of red blood cells in microscale flow. Microcirculation, ().
Krebs, J., Alapan, Y., Dennstedt, B., Wera, G., & Gurkan, U. (2017). Microfluidic processing of synovial fluid for cytological analysis. BIOMEDICAL MICRODEVICES, 19 (2).
Maji, D., Suster, M., Kucukal, E., Sekhon, U., Gupta, A., Gurkan, U., ... Mohseni, P. (2017). ClotChip: A Microfluidic Dielectric Sensor for Point-of-Care Assessment of Hemostasis. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, (), 1-11.
Valiyaveedu Sreekanth, K., ElKabbash, M., Alapan, Y., Ilker, E., Hinczewski, M., Gurkan, U., ... Strangi, G. (2017). Erratum to: Hyperbolic metamaterials-based plasmonic biosensor for fluid biopsy with single molecule sensitivity. EPJ Applied Metamaterials, 4 ().
Sreekanth, K., ElKabbash, M., Alapan, Y., Ilker, E., Hinczewski, M., Gurkan, U., ... Strangi, G. (2017). Hyperbolic metamaterials-based plasmonic biosensor for fluid biopsy with single molecule sensitivity. EPJ Applied Metamaterials, 4 ().
Alapan, Y., Kim, C., Adhikari, A., Gray, K., Gurkan Cavusoglu, E., Little, J., ... Gurkan, U. (2016). Sickle Cell Disease Biochip: a functional red blood cell adhesion assay for monitoring sickle cell disease. Transl Res, 173 (), 74 - 91.
Sreekanth, K., ElKabbash, M., Alapan, Y., Rashed, A., Gurkan, U., & Strangi, G. (2016). A multiband perfect absorber based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Scientific Reports [20452322], 6 ().
Alapan, Y., Matsuyama, Y., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2016). Dynamic deformability of sickle red blood cells in microphysiological flow. Technology [23395478], 4 (2), 71-79.
Alapan, Y., Fraiwan, A., Kucukal, E., Hasan, M., Ung, R., Kim, M., ... Gurkan, U. (2016). Emerging Point-of-Care Technologies for Sickle Cell Disease Screening and Monitoring. Expert Review of Medical Devices [17434440], 13 (12), 1073-1093.
Sreekanth, K., Alapan, Y., ElKabbash, M., Wen, A., Ilker, E., Hinczewski, M., ... Strangi, G. (2016). Enhancing the Angular Sensitivity of Plasmonic Sensors Using Hyperbolic Metamaterials. Advanced Optical Materials [21951071], 4 (11), 1767-1772.
Sreekanth, K., Alapan, Y., ElKabbash, M., Ilker, E., Hinczewski, M., Gurkan, U., ... Strangi, G. (2016). Extreme sensitivity biosensing platform based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Nature Materials [14761122], 15 (6), 621-627.
Alapan, Y., Kim, C., Adhikari, A., Gray, K., Gurkan-Cavusoglu, E., Little, J., ... Gurkan, U. (2016). Sickle cell disease biochip: a functional red blood cell adhesion assay for monitoring sickle cell disease. Translational Research [19315244], 173 (), 74-91.e8.
Alapan, Y., Younesi, M., Akkus, O., & Gurkan, U. (2016). Anisotropically Stiff 3D Micropillar Niche Induces Extraordinary Cell Alignment and Elongation. Advanced Healthcare Materials [21922640], 5 (15), 1884-1892.
Alapan, Y., Younesi, M., Akkus, O., & Gurkan, U. (2016). Cell-Aligning Substrates: Anisotropically Stiff 3D Micropillar Niche Induces Extraordinary Cell Alignment and Elongation (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016). Advanced Healthcare Materials [21922640], 5 (15), 1833-1833.
Alapan, Y., Icoz, K., & Gurkan, U. (2015). Micro- and nanodevices integrated with biomolecular probes.. Biotechnology advances, 33 (8), 1727-43.
Maji, D., Suster, M., Stavrou, E., Gurkan, U., & Mohseni, P. (2015). Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, 2015 (), 5904-7.
Shafiee, H., Asghar, W., Inci, F., Yuksekkaya, M., Jahangir, M., Zhang, M., ... Demirci, U. (2015). Paper and flexible substrates as materials for biosensing platforms to detect multiple biotargets.. Scientific reports, 5 (), 8719.
Guven, S., Lindsey, J., Poudel, I., Chinthala, S., Nickerson, M., Gerami-Naini, B., ... Demirci, U. (2015). Functional maintenance of differentiated embryoid bodies in microfluidic systems: a platform for personalized medicine.. Stem cells translational medicine, 4 (3), 261-8.
Alapan, Y., Hasan, M., Shen, R., & Gurkan, U. (2015). Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices. Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, 6 (2), 021007.
Alapan, Y., Little, J., & Gurkan, U. (2014). Heterogeneous red blood cell adhesion and deformability in sickle cell disease.. Scientific reports, 4 (), 7173.
Unal, M., Alapan, Y., Jia, H., Varga, A., Angelino, K., Aslan, M., ... Gurkan, U. (2014). Micro and Nano-scale Technologies for Cell Mechanics. Nanobiomedicine, 1 (4), 7173.
El Assal, R., Guven, S., Gurkan, U., Gozen, I., Shafiee, H., Dalbeyler, S., ... Demirci, U. (2014). Bio-inspired cryo-ink preserves red blood cell phenotype and function during nanoliter vitrification.. Advanced materials, 26 (33), 5815-22.
Kilinc, S., Gurkan, U., Guven, S., Koyuncu, G., Tang, C., Karaca, C., ... Demirci, U. (2014). Evaluation of epithelial chimerism after bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell infusion in intestinal transplant patients.. Transplantation proceedings, 46 (6), 2125-32.
Gurkan, U., El Assal, R., Yildiz, S., Sung, Y., Trachtenberg, A., Kuo, W., ... Demirci, U. (2014). Engineering anisotropic biomimetic fibrocartilage microenvironment by bioprinting mesenchymal stem cells in nanoliter gel droplets. Molecular pharmaceutics, ().
Wang, S., Tasoglu, S., Chen, P., Chen, M., Akbas, R., Wach, S., ... Others (2014). Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for Rapid CD4 Cell Count at the Point-of-Care. Scientific reports, 4 ().
Akkaynak, D., Treibitz, T., Xiao, B., Gurkan, U., Allen, J., Demirci, U., ... Hanlon, R. (2014). Use of commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras for scientific data acquisition and scene-specific color calibration.. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision, 31 (2), 312-21.
Tasoglu, S., Safaee, H., Zhang, X., Kingsley, J., Catalano, P., Gurkan, U., ... Others (2013). Microfluidic Sorting: Exhaustion of Racing Sperm in Nature-Mimicking Microfluidic Channels During Sorting (Small 20/2013). Small, 9 (20), 3366–3366.
Inci, F., Tokel, O., Wang, S., Gurkan, U., Tasoglu, S., Kuritzkes, D., ... Demirci, U. (2013). Nanoplasmonic Quantitative Detection of Intact Viruses from Unprocessed Whole Blood. ACS nano, 7 (6), 4733–4745.
Tasoglu, S., Kavaz, D., Gurkan, U., Guven, S., Chen, P., Zheng, R., ... Demirci, U. (2013). Paramagnetic Levitational Assembly of Hydrogels. Advanced Materials, 25 (8), 1081–1081.
Gurkan, U., Fan, Y., Xu, F., Erkmen, B., Urkac, E., Parlakgul, G., ... Demirci, U. (2013). Simple precision creation of digitally specified, spatially heterogeneous, engineered tissue architectures. Advanced Materials, 25 (8), 1192–1198.
Tasoglu, S., Safaee, H., Zhang, X., Kingsley, J., Catalano, P., Gurkan, U., ... Others (2013). Exhaustion of Racing Sperm in Nature-Mimicking Microfluidic Channels During Sorting. Small, 9 (20), 3374–3384.
Rizvi, I., Gurkan, U., Tasoglu, S., Alagic, N., Celli, J., Mensah, L., ... Hasan, T. (2013). Flow induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular heterogeneity and biomarker modulation in 3D ovarian cancer nodules. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (22), E1974–E1983.
Tasoglu, S., Gurkan, U., Wang, S., & Demirci, U. (2013). Manipulating biological agents and cells in micro-scale volumes for applications in medicine. Chemical Society Reviews, 42 (13), 5788–5808.
Wang, S., Esfahani, M., Gurkan, U., Inci, F., Kuritzkes, D., & Demirci, U. (2012). Efficient on-chip isolation of HIV subtypes. Lab on a Chip, 12 (8), 1508–1515.
Gurkan, U., Tasoglu, S., Kavaz, D., Demirel, M., & Demirci, U. (2012). Emerging technologies for assembly of microscale hydrogels. Advanced healthcare materials, 1 (2), 149–158.
Wang, S., Inci, F., Chaunzwa, T., Ramanujam, A., Vasudevan, A., Subramanian, S., ... Demirci, U. (2012). Portable microfluidic chip for detection of Escherichia coli in produce and blood. International journal of nanomedicine, 7 (), 2591–2600.
Ceyhan, E., Xu, F., Gurkan, U., Emre, A., Turali, E., El Assal, R., ... Demirci, U. (2012). Prediction and control of number of cells in microdroplets by stochastic modeling. Lab on a Chip, 12 (22), 4884–4893.
Xu, F., Inci, F., Mullick, O., Gurkan, U., Sung, Y., Kavaz, D., ... Demirci, U. (2012). Release of magnetic nanoparticles from cell-encapsulating biodegradable nanobiomaterials. ACS nano, 6 (8), 6640–6649.
Gurkan, U., Tasoglu, S., Akkaynak, D., Avci, O., Unluisler, S., Canikyan, S., ... Demirci, U. (2012). Smart Interface Materials Integrated with Microfluidics for On-Demand Local Capture and Release of Cells. Advanced healthcare materials, 1 (5), 661–668.
Gurkan, U., Golden, R., Kishore, V., Riley, C., Adamec, J., & Akkus, O. (2012). Immune and Inflammatory Pathways are Involved in Inherent Bone Marrow Ossification. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, (), 1–13.
Gurkan, U., Tas, H., Anand, T., & Demirci, U. (2011). Label-free and Viable Stem Cell Isolation from Peripheral Blood with a Disposable Microfluidic Chip. , ().
Zhang, X., Khimji, I., Gurkan, U., Safaee, H., Catalano, P., Keles, H., ... Demirci, U. (2011). Lensless imaging for simultaneous microfluidic sperm monitoring and sorting. Lab on a Chip, 11 (15), 2535–2540.
Xu, F., Sridharan, B., Durmus, N., Wang, S., Yavuz, A., Gurkan, U., ... Demirci, U. (2011). Living bacterial sacrificial porogens to engineer decellularized porous scaffolds. PloS one, 6 (4), e19344.
Xu, F., Wu, J., Wang, S., Durmus, N., Gurkan, U., & Demirci, U. (2011). Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications. Biofabrication, 3 (3), 034101.
Gurkan, U., Moon, S., Geckil, H., Xu, F., Wang, S., Lu, T., ... Demirci, U. (2011). Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing. Biotechnology journal, 6 (2), 138–149.
Zhang, X., Khimji, I., Shao, L., Safaee, H., Desai, K., Keles, H., ... Others (2011). Nanoliter droplet vitrification for oocyte cryopreservation. Nanomedicine, 7 (4), 553–564.
Moon, S., Ceyhan, E., Gurkan, U., & Demirci, U. (2011). Statistical modeling of single target cell encapsulation. PloS one, 6 (7), e21580.
Xu, F., Finley, T., Turkaydin, M., Sung, Y., Gurkan, U., Yavuz, A., ... Demirci, U. (2011). The assembly of cell-encapsulating microscale hydrogels using acoustic waves. Biomaterials, ().
Xu, F., Wu, C., Rengarajan, V., Finley, T., Keles, H., Sung, Y., ... Demirci, U. (2011). Three-Dimensional Magnetic Assembly of Microscale Hydrogels. Advanced Materials, ().
Sekeroglu, K., Gurkan, U., Demirci, U., & Demirel, M. (2011). Transport of a soft cargo on a nanoscale ratchet. Applied Physics Letters, 99 (), 063703.
Xu, F., Beyazoglu, T., Hefner, E., Gurkan, U., & Demirci, U. (2011). Automated and adaptable quantification of cellular alignment from microscopic images for tissue engineering applications. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, 17 (6), 641–649.
Gurkan, U., Kishore, V., Condon, K., Bellido, T., & Akkus, O. (2011). A scaffold-free multicellular three-dimensional in vitro model of osteogenesis. Calcified tissue international, 88 (5), 388–401.
Gurkan, U., Anand, T., Tas, H., Elkan, D., Akay, A., Keles, H., ... Demirci, U. (2011). Controlled viable release of selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels. Lab on a Chip, 11 (23), 3979–3989.
Gurkan, U., Krueger, A., & Akkus, O. (2011). Ossifying bone marrow explant culture as a three-dimensional mechanoresponsive in vitro model of osteogenesis. Tissue Engineering Part A, 17 (3-4), 417–428.
Gurkan, U., & Xu, F. (2011). Editorial: Scaffold-free cell-based approaches in biomedicine and biotechnology. Biotechnology journal, 6 (12), 1426–1427.
Xu, F., Sridharan, B., Wang, S., Gurkan, U., Syverud, B., & Demirci, U. (2011). Embryonic stem cell bioprinting for uniform and controlled size embryoid body formation. Biomicrofluidics, 5 (2), 022207.
Zhang, X., Catalano, P., Gurkan, U., Khimji, I., & Demirci, U. (2011). Emerging technologies in medical applications of minimum volume vitrification. Nanomedicine, 6 (6), 1115–1129.
Moon, S., Gurkan, U., Blander, J., Fawzi, W., Aboud, S., Mugusi, F., ... Demirci, U. (2011). Enumeration of CD4+ T-cells using a portable microchip count platform in Tanzanian HIV-infected patients. PLoS One, 6 (7), e21409.
Gurkan, U., Cheng, X., Kishore, V., Uquillas, J., & Akkus, O. (2010). Comparison of morphology, orientation, and migration of tendon derived fibroblasts and bone marrow stromal cells on electrochemically aligned collagen constructs. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 94 (4), 1070–1079.
Gurkan, U., Gargac, J., & Akkus, O. (2010). The sequential production profiles of growth factors and their relations to bone volume in ossifying bone marrow explants. Tissue Engineering Part A, 16 (7), 2295–2306.
Meldrum, R., Gurkan, U., Kattaya, S., & Akkus, O. (2009). Osteogenic Effects of Preparations of Rat Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages Challenged with Staphylococcus Aureus. Indiana Orthopaedic Journal, 3 (), 28.
Cheng, X., Gurkan, U., Dehen, C., Tate, M., Hillhouse, H., Simpson, G., ... Akkus, O. (2008). An electrochemical fabrication process for the assembly of anisotropically oriented collagen bundles. Biomaterials, 29 (22), 3278–3288.
Gurkan, U., & Akkus, O. (2008). The mechanical environment of bone marrow: a review. Annals of biomedical engineering, 36 (12), 1978–1991.